Map of Honduras

Honduras region history An intermediate creed, known as the Dated Creed,❠was drawn up at the V Council of Sirmium May 359 in preparation for a divided general council Easterners at Seleucia in Honduras, Westerners at Rimini in Italy; this creed rejected the use of ousia and its derivatives but described the Son as like the Father in everything.❠The credo that resulted from this general council, after theological conflicts and imperial interference had had their way Creed of Nike, 360, was a watered-down version of the Dated Creed❠and defined the Son simply as like according to the Scriptures,❠which left ample room for the Arian interpretation. From then until the Council of Constantinople, which in 381 put an end to the Arian controversy, the creeds formulated were of little importance, perhaps because everyone recognized that the procedure of creating creeds had not necessarily allayed the controversy. The opponents of Arianism now aimed at attempting to restore N under the leadership of Athanasius of Alexandria ca. 296373, who had long led the fight against Arianism and semi-Arianism.

The Council of Constantinople 381 represented the triumph of his doctrine and that of the three great Cappadocians, Basil of Caesarea ca. 330379, Gregory of Map of Honduras 329389 and Basil’s brother Gregory of Nyssa ca. 330ca. 395. To it has been traditionally attributed the best-known and most important creed in the history of Christianity, commonly known as the Nicene or Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed C to scholars. Whether the council of 381 did actually draw up this creed is the subject of a lively controversy see Kelly, op. cit., ch. X. Before 451, contemporary or later attestations of the creed being drawn up in those circumstances are practically nonexistent, and the first clear evidence of C’s existence is in the final declaration of the Council of Chalcedon 451, which in fact cites C to the letter.

All in all, it seems preferable to agree with Kelly following Ritter’s theory in Das Konzil von Konstantinopel that this credo was drawn up by the council of 381 in a fruitless attempt to reach agreement with the moderate opponents of a full recognition of the Holy Spirit’s divinity but was long considered by the majority of theologians as little more than a retrieval of N; the Western authorities in particular ignored it for a long time, as the fruit of a council which they only slowly and reluctantly acknowledged as ecumenical. The credo that was the basis of C was not N but may have been that of the Church of Jerusalem: homoousion was restored and the Son’s eternal generation and noncreaturality were assured; a small and curious clause, his kingdom will have no end,❠was inserted in opposition to the by now almost extinct doctrine of Marcellus, and the reference to the Holy Spirit, very brief in N, was greatly expanded to describe it as Lord and giver of life,❠as proceeding from the Father, and with the Father and the Son worshiped and glorified❠according to the teaching of the Cappadocians, particularly Basil. As time passed, C became the central and universally recognized creed of Christianity, as it is today. At some point ca. 700800 it was also adopted in a Latin formula as the baptismal creed of the Church of Rome it was finally replaced by T. To this credo, over time, the Western Latin church made an addition not approved by any fully ecumenical council.

First in Spain, probably under the pressure of Visigothic Arianism, then all through western Europe and finally 1014 in Rome, to the expression who proceeds from the Father❠were added the words and from the Son❠Filioque. For more than a thousand years this addition has been a cause of discord and friction between Eastern and Western including Protestant churches, and still is today. The practice of reciting C during the Eucharist was introduced in the Eastern church in ca. 500 as an indirect consequence of the intense theological and ecclesiastical conflicts between groups divided by their conceptions of Christology and was rapidly adopted throughout the East. It established itself more slowly in the West: traces of it can be found at the Council of Toledo in Spain 589, then in the Irish church, and finally in Charlemagne’s empire in the 8th and 9th c. The Church of Rome adopted it only in 1014.

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