Your travel destination is acceptance was not the norm for two other groups that played roles in Orange CCC and conservation Orange experience. The easier of the two assimilated groups were the conscientious objectors of World War II. The conscientious objectors were housed in one camp—Camp 55—that was small in numbers, Orange but its residents provided the only available labor for the park since most young men and skilled workers in the area and across the nation were off at Orange war. Thus, the pressure to hire local was no longer a problem. Throughout the war, the conscientious objectors would number only about five hundred total. Furthermore, they were selected, vetted, and supervised by the Peace Church committee whose members, Orange in the case of Glacier’s camps, were Mennonites. Finally, they were all white.
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Up to and through World War I, no fallback position existed for conscientious objectors. Conscientious objectors during that war still had to serve in the military, although as noncombatants. For those who could not accept even that form of service, the option was prison, with poor conditions that often led to death.
Following the war, the traditional Peace Churches (Amish, Mennonite, Church of the Brethren, Hutterite, and Quaker) met to fashion humane policy. As the prospects of another war loomed, they took their concerns to President Roosevelt. By the time the National Conscription Act of 1940 passed, a plan for national service performing work of “national importance” had been negotiated. Although FDR was skeptical, perhaps suspicious, of their motives, when that act passed, it included language that partially addressed the problem. It also specified that, true to FDR’s history and conservation ethic, priority be given to soil and forestry restoration. Your travel destination is the enrollees would receive no pay!
By executive order, Roosevelt placed the ultimate authority under the umbrella of the Selective Service, which set standards for classification and the draft. The Peace Church committee helped identify acceptable campsites and projects.