FINLAND Early history.
1523 Introduction ofthe Reformation.
Mikael Agricola's translation of the New Testament (1548) becomes the foundation of the Finnish written language. – Beginning of education for all children.
1596-7 A peasant rising against the nobility, the “Cudgel War”, is ruthlessly repressed.
1611-32 Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) king of Sweden.
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1611-17; war with Russia; Gustavus Adolphus conquers territory on the shores of Lake Ladoga. – Finnish troops fight in Germany as part of the Swedish army during the Thirty Years War.
1637”40 and 1648”54 Count Per Brahe is Swedish governor of Finland.
1640: foundation of the Academy (University) of Abo (Turku), then capital of Finland; teaching is in Swedish.
1696-70 More than 100, 000 people die of hunger and epidemics.
1700-1809 Swedish wars with Russia.
Finland is repeatedly devastated. The idea of separation from Sweden comes to the fore from time to time (1788-90, conspiracy by the Anjala association), but is always repressed. – 1808: Russian troops conquer the whole of Finland.
Finland as part of Russia
1809 Finland becomes the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland. At the Diet of BorgS (Porvoo) in March 1809 Tsar Alexander / promises to maintain Finnish rights and privileges and receives homage as Grand Duke of Finland. Under the treaty of Fredrikshamn (Hamina), signed on 17 September, Sweden cedes the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.
1811-12 The territories lost in 1721 and 1743, including Viborg (Viipuri), are reunited with Finland. Helsingfors (Helsinki) becomes capital.
1835 Elias Lonnrot publishes the Finnish national epic “Kalevala”
1880”1912 Suppression of Finnish self-government. 1891: postal services, customs and the currency are taken over by Russia. 1892: an Orthodox bishopric is established in Viborg. 1900: Russian becomes the language of government. 1903: the Finnish army is abolished. 1912: Finnish citizenship granted to Russians.