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Such critique frames the economic consequences of globalized, unregulated markets and the eurozone crisis. Soros had pointed out that although the global empire has no formal structure, it has a centre and a periphery just like an empire and the centre benefits at the expense of the periphery’, and the subjects of this empire are in peril as they do not even know they are subjected to it or, more correct, they recognize that they are subjected to impersonal and sometimes disruptive forces but they do not understand what those forces are’ (Soros 1998, cited in Grierson 2006: 71).

The great abstraction of exchange’ of Foucault’s (1991) descriptive analysis, and Soros’s (1998) abstract empire’ opens to a highly volatile set of non-abstract conditions with forces and shifts of power producing radically-contingent, global effects. This is a complex scenario. As globalization scholar Tomlinson predicted in 2000, globalizing phenomena are … complex and multidimensional, putting pressure on the conceptual frameworks by which we have traditionally grasped the social world’ (Tomlinson 2000: 14). In a technologically-connected world wherein modernity’s spatial and cultural concepts of locality and place are open to question, the analysis of globalization as a non-material, nonphysical, un-bounded, cultural, communicative network is as disruptive of connections as it is inter-connective. The local human subject, bound into these complexities with perhaps little comprehension or control of this economic environment, appears to be open to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune’ to use Shakespeare’s famous phrase.8

Urbanization and Biodiversity: Encountering damage and disadvantage

The major concerns of economists, like Soros and Stiglitz, turn towards the uneven distribution of power, and the inevitable damage to disadvantaged nations and people. Damage and disadvantage also inform the need to protect global environments, with understanding and protection of biological diversity, and survival of the world’s forests and critically endangered species. One such species is the genus elephas, elephant. This species, particularly in Asia, is the subject of major concern of the Elephant Parade.

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